Red Lake History Project
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Red Lake History 1800-1880
1803  Louisiana Purchase - French sold US title to land between Mississippi and Rockies, which was not theirs to sell, helps fund Napoleons ware

1804  Lewis and Clark expedition to Pacific - Up Mississippi and west, mapping, surveying potential resources for US

1806 - A Fur Trading Post of the "N.W.Co." was in operation at the east end of Red Lake as indicated on an early historical map.

1806 - About 200 Chippewa warriors and their families were roving the "Pembinar" (Pembina) River area. No doubt some of these roved the area northwest of Red Lake.

1808  Tecumseh's messengers visit Ojibwe

1810-1815 - The Battle of Thief River between warring tribes took place at some unknown spot in that area. There is no knowledge as to what group. However, Sioux raiding parties were always headed northward against the Chippewa, the Assiniboins, or the Cree and it is most likely this engagement was between the Sioux and Chippewa since the Chippewa were in that area about that time.

1811  Battle of Tippecanoe - William Henry Harris destroys Tecumseh's village at Wabash River, IN, while Tecumseh gone

1812  War of 1812 (1812-1814) - America declares war on British Empire. Brits and French are no longer threats as Anishinaabe allies against US. More power loss for Anishinaabe

1815  US signs treaties with Indians in Ohio Valley starting Indian removals west 1815-1825

1818  Authorization of Indian Agent .  Indian Agents became the key officials in relations between the United States and the Indian Tribes. The president nominated and appointed them by and with the advice and consent of the state senate.

1823 - Count Giacomo C. Beltrami took leave or separated from Major Stephen H. Long's party at Pembina. He engaged two Chippewa guides and an interpreter and headed Southeast toward Red Lake. They met up with a few Sioux who were leaving the area hurriedly and the Chippewa guides deserted. He finally reached Red Lake where he secured a half-breed to guide him southward. They followed the shore to Mud Creek then southward to a heart-shaped lake that he named "Julia". This lake he believed to be the most Northern source of the Mississippi

1824  The Secretary of War, John C. Calhoun, without official congressional authorization, set up the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) within his department and assigned the duties of this office to Thomas L. McKenney. In 1849, Congress transferred the BIA from the War Department to the Department of the Interior.

1825 Treaty of Prairie du Chien (WI) - Established boarder between Dakota and Ojibwe in the territory of Michigan (Minnesota) on August 19, 1825.  This treaty drew a line between the Ojibwe, whose territory was to the north, and the Dakota, whose land was to the south. It sought to place all tribes in the Great Lakes region within boundaries that would then be considered “their land.” It introduced the tribes to the concept of bounded regions of territory. Once tribes were accustomed to the concept, the land cessions began.

1826  American Fur Company post built at Sandy Lake.

1826  Treaty with the Chippewa concluded at the Fond du Lac of Lake Superior on August 5, 1826.

1827  Ojibwe Menominee boarder drawn

1830  Indian Removal Act - President Jackson Removal Bill passed

1830 - Fur traders were at Red Lake earlier but about this time people began to settle there permanently to form one of the oldest villages in Northwest Minnesota.

1831  Cherokee Nation v. Georgia - Tribes not foreign states but domestic dependent nations

1832  Black Hawk War - Chief Black Hawk, Sauk and Fox, refuse to attend land session treaties in which rogue chiefs sign. On return from hunting camp finds American squatters with false deeds to his peoples land. After futile requests for justice to the U.S. Government, Black Hawk goes to war with U.S. in a series of battles. Under a flag of truce, many of Black Hawks people are massacred.

1837  Treaty with the Chippewa at St. Peters (the confluence of the St. Peters and Mississippi rivers) in the territory of Wisconsin on July 29, 1837.

1838  Trail of Death - Indiana Potawatomis removed west to Kansas, many die forced march

1838  Trail of Tears - Cherokee forced march west of Mississippi. 25% die enroute conservative estimates

1839 - D. P. Bushwell, Sub-Agent at LaPointe, Wisconsin, reported the number of Chippewas at Red Lake as 70 men, 90 women, and 130 children for a total of 290 Chippewas. He reported a total of 2,914 Chippewas for all of Minnesota.

1842  Treaty with the Chippewa at LaPointe - Treaty with the Chippewa at LaPointe of Lake Superior in the territory of Wisconsin on October 4, 1842.

1842 - The first Mission was established at Red Lake by Rev. Frederick Ayres who left David Brainerd Spencer in charge. It was short lived but continued at intervals by Mr. Berna
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