Red Lake History Project
A RLNN Work in Progress
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1700  Mississauga Ojibwe final repel of Iroquois - During their wars with the Iroquois, the Ojibwe pushed down both sides of Lake Huron and by 1701 controlled most of lower Michigan and southern Ontario.

1700 - The Sioux superseded the Arikara (i.e. Balani, Aricaria, or Arikarees) at Red Lake and as early inhabitants of Northern Minnesota. The Ojibwa followed the Sioux.

1712  French and Fox war - The First Fox War (1712-16) began when Fox, Kickapoo, and Mascouten attacked Fort Pontchartrain on May 13th. The initial assault failed and was followed by a siege. With over 300 well-armed warriors pitted against 20 French soldiers inside a fort with crumbling walls, there is reason to ask if the Fox intended to kill the French or just scare them. In any case, a relief party of Wyandot, Ottawa, Potawatomi and Mississauga (Ojibwe) arrived and fell upon the Fox from behind. In the slaughter which followed, more than 1,000 Fox, Kickapoo, and Mascouten were killed. Only 100 of the Fox escaped to find refuge with the Iroquois (English traders called them Squawkies). Otherwise, only a few Fox returned to Wisconsin with the Kickapoo and Mascouten. They joined the Fox who had remained behind and made the French and their allies pay dearly for the massacre at Detroit.

1713  Peace at Utrecht

1715  Fox Naval attack Lake Superior Ojibwe

1730  Fox defeated by French  - Fox join Sauk Tribe after defeat

1730 - The Sioux were probably being driven out of Northern Minnesota about this time by the Ojibwas.

1737 - A map containing "New Western" discoveries in Canada is contained in a letter of Mr. deBeauharnois on October 14 in which he points out that the source of the Mississippi is shown south of "Lac Rouge" (Red Lake). The water course that is represented between "Lac Rouge" and the Mississippi is intended to show simply that a route of travel went that way, in this respect ante dating both Beltrami's and Thompson's visits to the Red Lake area.

1748 - Sioux War parties were sent out from Leech Lake after being strengthened by other Tribes from the West against the Ojibwa of the Pembina and Rainy Lake area. A battle some place near the present site of Big Falls on the Big Fork River and northeast of Red Lake was fought which ended with great losses on both sides. The Sioux withdrew and returned to Leech Lake.

1745  Millacs Ojibwe defeat Santee Dakota - The expansion of the Ojibwe into Wisconsin and Minnesota brought them into contact with the Eastern, or Santee Dakota (commonly known as the Sioux). During the 1730s, the Ojibwe and Dakota began to fight over the region around the western point of Lake Superior and the headwaters of the Mississippi River in Minnesota. A series of wars lasted until the 1850s. The Ojibwe were generally successful, and managed to push the Dakota farther west into Minnesota and North and South Dakota.

1750 - The Ojibwa began occupying the sites abandoned by the Dakotas after expelling them from the Mille Lac, Leech, Winnepeg (Winnibigoshish) and the Red Lake areas. The Ojibwa war parties originally came from the LaPointe area and then from Sandy Lake after they conquered the Sioux.

1754  French-Indian War 1754-1763 - War between French and English for Lake Erie and Ohio valley

1755 - Par M. Bellin's map of North America dated 1755 has Red Lake located and charted but calls it "Lac Rouge". He also has the source of the Mississippi located and charted just a little to the south and west of "Lac Rouge".

1755 - Approximate time that the Cross Lake (Ponemah) Chippewa Indians began living in the area called "O-bash-ing" or the Narrows (Now Ponemah Point) and around Miquam Bay to the East. It is believed that the Ojibwa lived on the south side of Red Lake first and some of the Chiefs and their Tribes migrated around to the north side near "O-bash-ing" or "O-baush-eeng" or "Ve-bash-ingie" (a strait or place the wind blows through).

1756  Seven Years War 1756-1763

1760  French colonists surrender to British

Cut Foot Sioux Leech Lake 1760? - Ojibwe defeat Dakota. Dakota prisoners foot is cut by Ojibwe and told to walk home.

1763  Pontiac's War - Pontiac attacks and destroys every British fort west of Niagara except Pitt and Detroit

1765 - The Sioux withdrew from the Red Lake area after a bloody encounter with the Chippewas (Ojibwa) near the mouth of the Sandy River around Big Stone in which Cross Lake (Ponemah) Indians annihilated the entire Sioux party. The Sioux previously had laid in ambush and killed one Chippewa trapper and wounded another near the mouth of the Battle River and had fled, leaving them both for dead. Legends say the resulting bloodshed gave Red Lake its name. The Ojibwe name for the lake is Mis-qua-mi-saga-eh-ganing.

1776  American Revolution 1776-1783

1770 - Northern timbered areas Minnesota were conquered and occupied by the Chippewa as semi-permanent homes. Few Sioux, except for some hunting and small raiding parties, were seen in this area for any length of time after this date.

1775 - A map published in London on June 10, 1775, is of North America from the French of Mr. Anville and improved with British surveys which shows much Minnesota and river locations. It is important in that it shows the Monsonis [Algonquian Tribe] as located north of Rainy Lake and the "Outowacs" [Ottowas] between Green Bay and Lake Superior.

1780  Settlers push over Appalachian Mountains - Brits can no longer ward off land grabbers but continue to control great lakes for 30 years

Battle at St Croix Falls 1780?  - Lead by Waabijig, Ojibwe defeat Dakota and Fox at St. Croix Falls in a decisive battle

1787  Northwest Ordinance - Indian land and property will not be taken without consent

1790  Indian Trade and Intercourse - Act Any transfer of Indian land must be approved by congress

1791  Little Turtle at Fort Jefferson - Little Turtle leads and Indian force of Miami's, Shawnees, and Delaware's, defeating Gen. Arthur St. Clair's army of over two thousand near Greenville, Ohio

1792 - Wa-won-je-gwon, an aged and intellectual Chief of Red Lake in 1850 stated that from the date of the expedition of Jean Baptiste Cadotte in 1792 or l 793 can be dated the settlement of Red Lake permanently by the Ojibwas.

1794  Establishment of British Northwest Company trading post at Sandy Lake.

Jay Treaty.

1795  Treaty of San Lorenzo

1796 - Battle of Chief's Mountain took place somewhere west of Red Lake.

1798 - David Thompson, a British surveyor and trader for the Northwest Company, was returning from the difficult mission of locating the forty-ninth parallel of latitude and while surveying a route to the headwaters of the Mississippi River passed through Red Lake. He continued on southward and reached Turtle Lake which he established as the Northern source of the Mississippi.
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